Countries in eastern Europe need to spend up to €6.5bn to bring their power plants in line with EU air pollution rules they have signed up to.
The eight countries in the Energy Community must implement emission limits set out in the Large Combustion Plant Directive by 1 January 2018, although they can exempt some plants that limit their running hours and shut down in 2023.
Countries including Ukraine, Serbia and Albania have until 2015 to decide how many plants they want to exempt, although under the terms of the deal struck in October the EU gets the final say over whether these opt-outs go ahead.
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